Ion beam assisted patterning and smoothing

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Smoothing and planarization of surfaces

Figure (1) Principle of procedure: Ion Beam Smoothing
Figure (2) Principle of procedure: Ion Beam Planarization
Figure (3) Multi-step planarization of single-point diamond machined surfaces

Deterministic IBF finishing technologies with macroscopic beam tool sizes are now well established in production for shape correction and figuring of high performance optics. In contrast, ion beam induced smoothing of spatially micrometer and nanometer features is strongly coupled to atomistic processes that are characteristic for the much smaller spatial length scales and are less deterministic. Low-energy ion beam techniques (ion energy ≤ 2 keV) have been developed to improve the microscopic surface roughness of solid surfaces on a nanometer to some ten micrometer spatial scale to achieve ultra-smooth surfaces with rms roughness values < 0.2 nm. Two processing schemes ion beam direct smoothing and smoothing with planarization or sacrificial layers are demonstrated.

 

Procedures :

  • Direct ion beam smoothing (IBS)
    Utilization of atomic relaxation processes

  • Ion beam planatization (IBP)
    Smoothing by sacrificial layer and its tranfer into the material

 

 

Selected publications

  • Y. Li, H. Takino, F. Frost,
    Ion beam planarization of diamond turned surfaces with various roughness profiles,
    Opt. Express 25 (2017) 7828-7838
    doi: 10.1364/OE.25.007828

  • Y. Li, H. Takino, F. Frost,
    Characteristics of diamond turned NiP smoothed with ion beam planarization technique,
    J. Europ. Opt. Soc. - Rapid Publications 13 (2017) 27
    doi: 10.1186/s41476-017-0057-5

  • F. Frost, R. Fechner, B. Ziberi, J. Völlner, D. Flamm, A. Schindler,
    Large area smoothing of surfaces by ion bombardment: fundamentals and applications,
    J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21 (2009) 224026
    doi: 10.1088/0953-8984/21/22/224026